Biology Biology Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life Questions and Study …

 
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Joel_Ellerbrock

CP Biology- Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life

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Atom
Smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down your chemical means
Element
Pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Compound
Substance made of the joined atoms of two or more elements
Molecule
Group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Ion
Atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Cohesion
Attraction between substances of the same kind
Adhesion
Attraction between substances of different kinds
Solution
Mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance
Acid
Compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
Base
Compounds that reduce the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
Carbohydrates
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a proportion 1:2:1
Monosaccharides
Building blocks of carbohydrates
Lipids
Nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water
Protein
Large molecule formed by linked smaller molecules called amino acids
Amino Acids
Building blocks of proteins
Nucleic Acid
Long chain of smaller molecules known as nucleotides
Nucleotide
Subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Consists of two strands of nucleotides that spiral around eachother
RNA or Ribonucleic Acid
Consists of one strand of nucleotides or of based-paired nucleotides
ATP
Single nucleotide with two extra energy-storing phosphate groups
Energy
Ability to move or change matter
Activation Energy
Energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Enzymes
Substances that increase the speed of chemical reactions
Substrate
Substance on which an enzyme acts upon during a chemical reaction
Active Sites
Site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
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Biology – Ch. 2 – Chemistry of life

Chapter 2 terms

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atom
The smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means.
element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom.
compound
A substance made up of the joined atoms of two or more different elements.
molecule
The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded togeather.
ion
An atom, radical or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge.
cohesion
An attraction between substances of the same kind.
adhesion
An attraction between different substances.
solution
A mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance.
acids
Compounds that form hydrgen ions when dissolved in water are called…
bases
Compounds that reduce the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution are called…
carbohydrates
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, includes sugars and starch
Macromolecule
A large molecule made of many smalles molecules.
Cellulose
A polysaccharide that prvides structural suppost for plants.
lipids
nonpolar molecules that include fats, oil, and cholesterol
fatty Acid
chain of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
protein
a polymer made of monomers called amino acids.
amino acids
molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acid
polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides
chemical reaction
change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds
reactants
the substances that change during a chemical reaction
activation energy
the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
enzymes
catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
catalysts
a substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction and ,as a result, increases the chemical reaction
subtrate
specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
solvent
the substance that is present in the greater amount and that dissolves in another substance
solute
a substance that dissolves in a solvent
ionic bond
forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond
forms when atoms share a pair of electrons
hydrogen bond
attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom, often oxygen or nitrogen
pH
scale used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
monomer
each subunit in the complete molecule
polymer
a large molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together
products
the substances made by a chemical reaction
exothermic
chemical reaction that releases more energy than it absorbs
endothermic
chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it releases
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acwilliams0

Biology Chapter 2- The Chemistry of Life

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Atom
– the basic unit of matter
– the concept of the atom came from the Greek philosopher, Democritus
– means unable to be cut
– made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
– neutrally charged
Protons and neutrons
– have the same mass
– protons are positively charged particles
– neutrons are neutral
– strong forces bind protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus
Nucleus
– the center of an atom
– contains protons and neutrons inside of it
– has electrons orbiting around it
Electrons
– a negatively charged particle
– has about 1/1840 the mass of a proton
– orbit around the nucleus
Chemical element
– a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
– more than 100 elements are known, but only about two dozen are commonly found in living organisms
Atomic number
– the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
– atomic number=the number of protons
Isotopes
– atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
– geologists can determine the ages of rocks and fossils by analyzing the isotopes found in them
– radiation from certain isotopes can be used to detect and treat cancer and to kill bacteria that causes food to spoil
Mass number
– the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Chemical compound
– a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
Chemical bonds
– the atoms in compounds are held together by various types of chemical bonds
– the main types of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds
Ionic bonds
– formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
– an atom that loses electrons becomes positively charged
– an atom that gains electrons becomes negatively charged
Ions
– positively and negatively charged atoms
Covalent bonds
– electrons are shared instead of transferred (co- shared)
– the moving electrons travel about the nuclei of both atoms and forms a covalent bond
Molecule
– the structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds
– the smallest unit of most compounds
Van der Waals Forces
– when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can develop between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
-intermolecular forces of attraction
Like other molecules, water is _______.
Neutral (it has 10 protons and 10 electrons).
Polarity
– the oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen end of the molecule has a slight positive charge
Hydrogen bond
– the attraction between a hydrogen atom on one water molecule and the oxygen atom on another
– weaker than ionic and covalent bonds
– hydrogen bonds are not as strong as covalent or ionic bonds, and they can form in other compounds besides water
Cohesion
– an attraction between molecules of the same substance
– also produces surface tension, explaining why some insects and spiders can walk on a pond’s surface
Adhesion
– an attraction between molecules of different substances
– the surface of water in a graduated cylinder dips slightly in the center, forming a curve called a meniscus, because the adhesion between water molecules and glass molecules is stronger than the cohesion between water molecules
– capillary action is one of the forces that draws water out of the forces that draws water out of the roots of a plant and up into its stems and leaves
Heat capacity
– because of the multiple hydrogen bonds between water molecules, it takes a large amount of heat energy to cause those molecules to move faster and raise the temperature of the water
– the amount of heat energy required to increase water’s temperature is relatively high
Mixture
– water is often found as part of a mixture
– it is a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
Solution
– the ions gradually become dispersed in the water
– made up of solutes and solvents
– water easily dissolves salts, sugars, minerals, gases, and other solvents such as alcohol.
– when a given amount of water has dissolved all of the solute it can, the solution is said to be saturated
Solute
– the substance that is dissolved
Solvent
– the substance in which the solute dissolves
– water is the universal solvent
Suspensions
– materials that do not dissolve in water, but instead separate into pieces and do not settle out
– mixtures of water nondissolved material
Blood is mostly _____.
Water.
pH scale
– a measurement system devised by chemists to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
– 7 is the neutral pH
– the scale ranges from 0-14
Acids
– any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution
– hydrochloric acid is a strong acid produced by the stomach to help digest food
Bases
– a compound that produces hydroxide (OH-) ions in a solution
– strong bases such as the lye used in soapmaking tend to have pH values ranging from 11-14
Buffers
– the pH of the fluids within most cells in the human body must generally be kept between 6.5 and 7.5 in order to maintain homeostasis
– one of the ways that organisms control pH is through dissolved compounds (buffers)
– they are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden changes in pH
the Chemistry of Carbon
– carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons, allowing them to form strong covalent bonds with many other elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen
– carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds
Macromolecules
– four groups of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
– are made up of small units called monomers
– monomers form together to form polymers
Carbohydrates
– first group of macromolecules
– living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy
– plants, some animals, and other organisms use carbohydrates for structural purposes
– compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1:2:1
Lipids
– can be used to store energy
– some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
– mostly made from carbon and hydrogen atoms and are generally not soluble in water
– the common categories of lipids are fats, oils, an waxes
– many steroids such as hormones serve as chemical messengers
– formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids
– lipids take longer to break down
– if each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond, the lipid is said to be saturate
– if there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid, the fatty acid is said to be unsaturated
Nucleic acids
– store and transmit hereditary (genetic) information
– contains hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
– it’s monomers are called nucleotides
– nucleotides consist of 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group (-PO4), and a nitrogenous base
– there are 2 kinds of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Proteins
– control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes
– some form important cellular structure, while others transport substances into or out of cells of help to fight disease
– it’s monomers are called amino acids
– the most diverse group of macromolecules
Simple sugars
– single sugar molecules are also known as monosaccharides
– besides glucose, monosaccharides include galactose, which is a component of mil, and fructose, which is found in many fruits
– ordinary table sugar (sucrose) is a disaccharide
Complex Carbohydrates
– many animals store excess sugar in a polysaccharide called glycogen
– the glycogen stored in your muscles supplies the energy for muscle contraction
– plants use a slightly different polysaccharide (starch) to store excess sugar
– plants make another important polysaccharide (cellulose), which gives plants much of their strength and rigidity
Amino acids
– compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
– differ from each other in a side chain called the R-group which have a range of different properties
– more than 20 different amino acids are found in nature
Levels of Organization
– primary structure: the sequence of its amino acids
– secondary structure: the folding or coiling of the polypeptide chain
– tertiary structure: the complete, three-dimensional arrangement of a polypeptide chain
– quartenary structure: different proteins interact with each other
Chemical reaction
– a process that changes one set of chemicals into another by changing the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds
– the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are called reactants
– the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are called products
Activation energy
– the energy that is needed to get a reaction started
Catalyst
– a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
– catalysts work by lowering a reaction’s activation energy
– carbonic anhydrase gets its name because it catalyzes the reverse reaction that removes water from carbonic acid.
Enzymes
– proteins that act as biological catalysts
– they speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
– enzymes act by lowering the activation energies, which has a dramatic effect on how quickly reactions are completed
– enzymes produced by human cells generally work best at temperatures close to 37˚C, the normal temperature of the human body.
Substrates
– the reactants of enzyme catalyzed reactions
Energy is released or absorbed whenever ________ _____ are formed or broken during chemical reactions.
Chemical bonds.
Energy changes
– an example of an energy-releasing reaction is the burning of hydrogen gas, in which hydrogen reacts with oxygen to produce water vapor.
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